tanh function

The tanh function, also known as the hyperbolic tangent function, is an activation function in artificial neural networks whose output values are constrained between the values of −1 and 1. The following screenshot provides a graph of function f(x)=tanh(x), as output from the Geogebra free online calculator.

target function

In machine learning, the target function is a mathematical representation of the relationship between an ML model's input variables and output variables, which best approximates some desired outcome from a machine learning model.

technical debt

Technical debt is a metaphor which refers to the implied cost of additional work which happens due to having implemented a quick and simplistic machine learning (ML) solution. Some typical design choices which contribute to technical debt are the project changing requirements, outdated code, insufficient unit and system testing and poor ML documentation. Code refactoring ... Read more

Tensor flow

Tensor flow TensorFlow is an open-source machine learning (ML) software library. Tensorflow was originally created by the Google Brain Team in 2015. The main purpose of Tensorflow is building and training neural networks, by using a variety of supported languages, the primary one being Python. To discover the Tensorflow customizable pre-built models, visit its official ... Read more


The threshold is a value which a classification model  uses, in order to classify anything higher than the threshold as positive, and anything lower than the threshold as negative.

time series

In machine learning, time series is a series of data, where values of certain features are presented in a sequence of time. There are univariate and multivariate time series in forecasting problems in machine learning. Univariate forecasting models make use of algorithms such as ARIMA and multivariate forecasting models make use of algorithms such as ... Read more


TLU stands for threshold logic unit. TLU is an output neuron which calculates the weighted sum of input neurons and then implements a step function. This is used in the perceptron artificial neural network model.


Tokenization in Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the process of partitioning natural language text into smaller units, which are then manipulated by RNN or other artificial neural network models.


Tensor Processing Units (TPUs) are electronic circuits which are optimized for AI operations and ML tasks. TPUs utilize the TensorFlow protocol logic to align with AI/ML task performance requirements.

Transformer machine learning model

Transformer machine learning model A transformer is a deep learning model. Transformer models are mainly used for natural language processing (NLP) and computer vision (CV). Transformers are the evolution of RNN models. A recent example of tranformer-type models in artificial intelligence (AI) are the dp-tranformer models developed by Microsoft research. More details can be found ... Read more