Caffe is a deep learning framework, which has been developed by Berkeley AI Research (BAIR) and various other contributors. The Caffe official project website is


CNN stands for convolutional neural network. It is a type of artificial neural network which is primarily used in artificial intelligence for image processing and computer vision tasks. CNN network architecture comprises an input layer, followed by one or more pairs of convolution and pooling layers connected in series, then followed by fully connected MLP ... Read more

coefficient of determination

The coefficient of determination (also depicted as R^2) is a calculation of the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable (noted as y) which is explained by a linear regression model. The value of the coefficient of determination can be in the 0..1 range. The coefficient of determination can be calculated by using the ... Read more

convex function

A convex function is a function which features a single global minimum, whereas a non-convex functions presents many local minima. A good analysis on the mathematical aspects and mathematical definition of convex and non-convex functions can be found at: Some examples of ML algorithms which have restrictions related to convex functions are the following: ... Read more

Cost function

The loss function (or sometimes called error function) is a function which compares the output of an ML model as compared to the ground truth for a single training example, while the cost function is meant to be calculated over the entire training set (or mini-batch for mini-batch gradient descent).


A central processing unit (CPU) is a complex electronic circuit which performs all numerical, logic, IO and control computations inside a computer. There are generally two types of CPUs, ie reduced instruction set computers (RISC) and Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC). There are also other similar circuits to a CPU, with a more specialized scope ... Read more

cross validation

In machine learning (ML), cross validation is a method in which the data scientists perform an evaluation of an ML model's performance on unlabelled data, i.e. data which the ML model has not seen before. In the method of cross validation, the data which is available in the dataset is split into multiple subsets. One ... Read more