ACA stands for Azure Container Apps. Azure Container Apps are a flavor of a hosted Kubernetes services in the Microsoft Azure cloud. ACA is a fully Platform As A Service (PaaS) resource. In the ACA service, Microsoft manages all components of the underlying Kubernetes cluster, including the system nodes (control plane) and the user nodes ... Read more


Accuracy in machine learning classification model (classifier) is a measure of how frequently each classification is correctly deemed positive or negative. Accuracy is calculated by the following mathematical formula accuracy = (true positives + true negatives) / (all estimated values) Use the following reference for some good visual examples of accuracy, precision and recall:


ACI stands for Azure Container Instance. It is a lightweight container PaaS service which allows the end customer to deploy, configure and manage a simple container-based solution based on a docker or other container image, without having to manage the underlying container cluster components. ACI can work together with Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) by making ... Read more


ACR stands for Azure Container Registry. It is a PaaS resource which encapsulates the management of container images, such as Docker images in the Microsoft Azure Cloud. ACR is tightly integrated to other container services in Azure, such as AKS. An AKS cluster can utilize an ACR registry to pull its container images from. An ... Read more

activation function

An activation function in artificial neural networks (ANN) is a function which computes the output of an artificial neuron to solve non-linear tasks. The activation function of a neural network essentially decides whether a neuron should be activated or not.


ACU The concept of the Azure Compute Unit (ACU) encapsulates infomation about CPU performance in each Azure service which relies on CPU performance to classify its SKU plan. The basic reference for ACU is the Azure Standard_A1 (small) VM corresponding to 100 ACUs. All other Azure compute service SKUs advertise certain levels of ACU, which ... Read more

additive function

Additive functions are functions which satisfy the condition f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y) for any x and y. Additive functions are linear functions.

adversarial machine learning

The term adversarial machine learning describes all possible defense measures against cyber attacks on machine learning models.

Adversarial ML Threat Matrix

The Adversarial ML Threat Matrix is a framework aimed at detecting and resolving cybersecurity threats in ML systems. The Adversarial ML Threat Matrix is based on the MITRE ATT&CK Matrix.

AI accelerator

AI accelerator An AI accelerator is a specialized hardware component which is mainly utilized for artificial intelligence tasks. It can perform AI computations in a more efficient manner than conventional computer processors (CPU), hence AI accelerators are also known as Neural Processing Units (NPU). By using algorithms for parallelism, AI accelerators can enchance performance of ... Read more

AI hardware

Artificial Intelligence (AI) relates to computer hardware in multiple ways, as follows: AI platforms are being used to optimize the design and manufacturing of new compute hardware systems. Special computer hardware processor units, referred to as AI accelerators or Neural Processing Units (NPU) are being developed to enhance the performance of AI applications and machine ... Read more


AKS standards for Azure Kubernetes Service. It is an Azure cloud managed fully-featured Kubernetes cluster service. In AKS, there are system node pools and user node pools. System node pools host the AKS infrastructure components, i.e. the control plane components of the Kubernetes cluster, such as the API server. User node pools host the customer ... Read more


An algorithm is a series of instructions, either in the form of pseudo-code or in a computer programming language, which aim at solving a problem or at performing some sort of computation. Algorithms are therefore strongly connected to various fields of mathematics and physics, such as probability and statics, calculus and linear algebra. Algorithms apply ... Read more


The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open integration and messaging standard for communication of business messages among applications. AMQP acts as an integration service protocol or middleware protocol. Review the official protocol documentation at for more details.


ANN stands for artificial neural network. It is an electronic neural network which simulates the operations and features of human brain neural networks.

Apache Kafka

Apache Kafka is an open-source distributed event streaming platform for high-performance data pipelines, streaming analytics, data integration, and mission-critical applications. Microsoft Azure has a Kafka service implementation in its HDInsight cloud service. In Azure you can also use Azure Event Hubs to stream data from Apache Kafka applications without setting up a Kafka cluster on ... Read more


ARIMA stands for autoregressive integrated moving average. It is a regression algorithm which is commonly used in univariate time series forecasting problems.

artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) means developing intelligence in computing systems and robots. Artificial intelligence emulates human brain intelligence and is capable of executing tasks which require cognitive ability. The most common cognitive services which can be implemented in AI are the following: Language, including Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Natural Language Understanding (NLU) Computer vision, including ... Read more


Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are custom-built integrated circuit (IC) electronic systems, which are designed to optimize AI and ML workloads. ASICs have a large application spectrum, including for example video and voice codecs. In contrast to ASICs which are application specific, there are various general purpose Integrated Circuit systems, such as FPGAs.


AUC stands for Area Under the Curve. This refers to the two-dimensional area which is defined by a mathematical plot curve, the x-axis and two boundary points.